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What is the definition of leadership?

 After studying this article, you should be able to:
  • Understand the nature of leadership, and distinguish leadership from management.
  • Discuss the trait approach to leadership.
  • Discuss and evaluate models of leadership focusing on behaviors Understand the contingency theories of lam.
  • leadership - Identify and describe two related perspectives on leadership
What is the definition of leadership?
What is the definition of leadership?

Leadership Definition

We can define leadership by several ways:
  • Leadership is the process of guiding and motivating others toward the achievement of organizational goals.
  • Leadership is an interpersonal influence directed toward the achievement of a goal or goals.

The Leadership

Leadership are people who can influence the behaviors of others without having to rely on force.
By other words, leadership people who are accepted as leadership by others.

Characteristics of Leadership

We can illustrate the characteristics of leadership from several prospective:
Personal Characteristics of Leadership
  • Energy
  • Physical strength
Intelligence and Ability
  • Intelligence, cognitive ability
  • Knowledge
  • Judgment, decisiveness
Personality
  • Self-confidence
  • Honesty and integrity
  • Enthusiasm
  • Desire to lead
  • Independence
Social Characteristics of Leadership
  • Sociability, interpersonal skills
  • Cooperativeness
  • Ability to enlist cooperation
  • Tact, diplomacy
Work-Related Characteristics
  • Drive, desire to excel
  • Responsibility in pursuit of goals
  • Persistence against obstacles, tenacity

Leadership versus Management

Leadership and management are related, but different. For example, the management side of executing plans focuses on monitoring results, comparing them with goals, and correcting deviations. In contrast, the leadership side of the same activity focuses on energizing people to overcome bureaucratic hurdles to help reach goals.
Management and Leadership
ManagersLeadership
Appointed and have formal authority.Have managerial authority and can influence others.
Focus on the present.Focus on the future.
Maintain status quo and stability.Create change.
Implement policies & procedures.Create a culture based on shared values.
Remain aloof to maintain objectivity.Establish an emotional link with followers.
Use position power.Use personal power.

Leadership and Power

Power Defined:
  • Power is the ability to affect the behavior of others.
  • Power is the capacity to influence, or Power is Ability to affect others' beliefs, attitudes & actions.
Sources of Power There are five sources of power:
  • Referent power
  • Expert power
  • Legitimate power
  • Reward power
  • Coercive power
Referent Power: Based on followers' identification and liking for the leader.
Referent power: refers to a person who has desirable resources or personal traits. It results in admiration and the desire to emulate.
Expert Power: Expert power is derived from information or expertise.
Expert power: comes from expertise, skill, or knowledge.
Legitimate Power: Legitimate power is granted through the organizational hierarchy.
Reward Power: Derived from having the capacity to give or withhold rewards to others.
Coercive Power: Derived from having the capacity to penalize or punish others.
Coercive power: is the threat of sanctions. It is dependent on fear, but is not limited to the ability to dismiss, assign undesirable work, or restriction of movement.

Leadership Styles

The style of leadership is the key to bringing about improved subordinate motivation, satisfaction, and performance. Four leadership styles can be identified:
Directive: The leader directs and there is no subordinate participation in decision making.
Supportive: The leader is friendly and is interested in subordinates as people. By building interpersonal relationships and creating a supportive work environment, the leader seeks to achieve the best performance from subordinates.
Participative: The leader asks for, receives and uses suggestions from subordinates to make decisions. The leader places emphasis on the staff functioning as a team, as sharing some of the decisions.
Achievement: oriented-The leader sets challenging goals for subordinates and shows confidence that they can achieve the goals with relatively little supervision.

Related Perspective on Leadership

1 - Charismatic Leadership
Charisma, an interpersonal attraction that inspires support and acceptance, is an individual characteristic of a leader.
  1. Charismatic persons are more successful than noncharismatic persons.
  2. Charismatic leaders are self-confident, have a firm conviction in their beliefs and ideals, and possess a strong need to influence people.
  3. Charismatic leaders in organizations must be able to:
  • Envision the future, set high expectations,
  • Energize others through a demonstration of excitement, personal confidence and patterns of success.
  • Enable others by supporting them.
2 - Successful keys of leadership
There are seven keys to successful leadership:
  • Trusting one's subordinates
  • Developing a vision
  • Keeping cool
  • Encouraging risk
  • Being an expert
  • Inviting dissent
  • Simplifying things
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